At present, what are the key points to strengthen emergency management system and capacity building? How is it going? The reporter conducted an interview.
Keyword 1: prevention first
Improve multi-hazard and disaster chain comprehensive monitoring, early risk identification and forecast and early warning capabilities
China is one of the countries with the most severe natural disasters in the world. At the same time, various types of accident hazards and safety risks are superimposed and prone to occur frequently. "It's our advantage to focus our efforts on major events. This is mainly reflected in the emergency response, especially in the emergency rescue of catastrophes, but there are still shortcomings in prevention capabilities," said Wang Hongwei, an associate professor at the School of Public Management at Renmin University of China.
To truly solve the problem at the beginning and before the disaster, it is indispensable to strengthen the risk assessment and monitoring and early warning, strengthen the safety risk investigation of key chemical industries such as hazardous chemicals, mines, road transportation, and fire protection , and improve multiple disasters and disasters. Chain comprehensive monitoring, early risk identification and forecasting and early warning capabilities.
"The four dammed lakes that occurred in succession in the Jinsha River and the Yarlung Zangbo River in 2018 have typical disaster chain characteristics. They are caused by a combination of seismic geological structures, glacial freeze-thaw, and climate change. . This requires comprehensive monitoring of hydrology, geology, climate and other conditions, early identification of risks and forecasting and early warning. "Wang Hongwei as an example.
It is understood that the Ministry of Emergency Management is working with relevant departments to speed up the construction of disaster monitoring stations and infrastructure, strengthen the mechanism for consultation and research on disaster risks, regularly research and judge disaster development trends, and assess risks. At the same time, a national disaster comprehensive risk survey was carried out to find out the number of hidden dangers and carry out comprehensive rectification.
Keyword 2: Precision governance
Early warning release, rescue and rescue, restoration and reconstruction, and supervision and enforcement must be accurate
Strengthen emergency management system and capacity building, implement precise governance, issue early warning, be precise in rescue and rescue, be precise in restoration and reconstruction, and be precise in supervision and law enforcement. How to understand "the four must be precise"?
"Early warning is issued to ensure that the level, type, occurrence process, and possible scope of disaster accidents are accurate. Only in this way can we mobilize emergency resources in a timely, rapid, and efficient manner to prevent the expansion of disaster accidents or cause secondary accidents." Zhang Xingkai, president of the institute, said.
Rescue and rescue should be accurate, and scientific and accurate research and judgment of disasters should be conducted, and targeted rescue measures should be taken. For example, the rescue of dangerous goods storage must grasp the type and quantity of goods in stock, and when a large crude oil storage tank is in a fire, the position of the spray foam should be determined according to the wind direction and fire. To restore and reconstruct accurately, it is necessary to scientifically select the address for restoration and reconstruction, so that disasters can be rescued, and "a flood of floods" should be avoided. Supervision and law enforcement must be precise, law enforcement punishment must be accurate, discretion must be within the scope allowed by law, and the relationship between security and development must be coordinated.
In terms of work safety, in the view of Zhang Xingkai, it is imminent to carry out a nationwide systematic, comprehensive and scientific work safety survey to find out the bottom line and pinpoint the hidden dangers.
Keyword 3: Emergency support
Establish a joint training and training mechanism, give play to the advantages of high-speed rail, and build a rapid power transmission system
China's emergency rescue forces mainly include national comprehensive fire rescue teams, various professional emergency rescue teams and social emergency forces.
How to strengthen the construction of a comprehensive national rescue force? By combining with local professional teams and volunteer teams and establishing joint training and rescue, rescue cooperation mechanisms, etc., it can better exert its strength in all aspects.
Zhang Xingkai believes that joint training and training are conducive to making full use of emergency education and training resources, promoting mutual understanding of emergency rescue forces, and improving the ability to coordinate and respond to major and severe disasters.
In the first National Social Emergency Force Skills Competition held this year, 6 national land search and rescue bases and training bases of provincial fire rescue agencies provided free training grounds and simulation facilities for social emergency forces to provide emergency rescue technical guidance. In the next step, the Emergency Management Department will provide a joint training, joint training and joint performance platform to better utilize the value of social emergency forces.
Rescue teams are working hard and traffic security has to catch up. After disasters such as severe earthquakes and mudslides, it is often necessary to immediately deliver a large number of rescue personnel and equipment. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the construction of aviation emergency rescue capabilities, improve the emergency rescue airspace support mechanism, and take advantage of high-speed rail to build a rapid power transmission system.
"The high-speed rail runs fast, has high capacity, is relatively less affected by the climate and the environment, and the layout also basically covers most of our country. Combined with motorized mobility, the team can be directly sent to the front line of rescue and rescue." Zhang Xingkai said.
Keyword 4: Equipment technology
Rely on science and technology to improve the level of scientific, professional, intelligent and refined
In Jiangxi, in the 2019 Yangtze River middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the "Transformers" manipulator, water reconnaissance unmanned boat, amphibious all-terrain vehicle, three-dimensional laser scanner and other equipment are particularly eye-catching;
In Shandong, a sudden fire broke out in the mining face of Liangbaosi Coal Mine, and 11 miners were all rescued by the lift. It has one of its aids-a fire-fighting and reconnaissance robot with a water spray distance of 100 meters and a water flow rate of 80 liters per second;
In Fujian, in April this year, a magnitude 6.7 earthquake occurred in the waters of Hualien County, Taiwan. The earthquake early warning system released information in real time, earning early warning times ranging from 45 to 96 seconds for various places in Fujian.
"In recent years, the application of new technologies and new equipment has greatly improved our actual combat capabilities and rescue efficiency. For example, a three-dimensional laser scanner can measure data in a range of 1400 meters, quickly obtain panoramic three-dimensional data of the disaster area, and display the amount of terrain change and The amount of filling and digging provides strong support for scientific decision-making. "The relevant person in charge of the Second Engineering Bureau of China Aneng was deeply moved.
We need "combat capability" from equipment and technology, strengthen technical support for emergency management equipment, optimize and integrate various types of scientific and technological resources, promote independent innovation, and rely on science and technology to improve the scientific, professional, intelligent, and sophisticated level of emergency management.
"The next step is to use the Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies to improve the ability to perceive, predict and prevent risk factors." Wang Hongwei said.
Keyword 5: Implement responsibility
Ensure that the chain of responsibility is seamlessly connected to form an overall synergy
Party committees and governments at all levels must earnestly shoulder the political responsibility of "promoting development on one side and keeping one side safe" and strictly implement the responsibility system. This requires giving full play to the comprehensive advantages of the emergency management department and the professional advantages of the relevant departments, linking up the "resistance" and "rescue" responsibility chains, ensuring that the responsibility chains are seamlessly connected, and forming an overall synergy.
Wang Hongwei believes that this is to emphasize the need to resolve the "conflict between borders of authority and responsibility of emergency management departments and borderless risks of emergencies." At present, some departments think that “emergency management is a matter for the emergency management department”, and push forward.
"Actually, the relationship between defense and rescue cannot be cut off categorically, and the two are nested with each other. Departments need to cooperate and cooperate closely." Wang Hongwei analysis.
In addition to "prevention and rescue", there is still a contradiction between "upper and lower" in the current emergency management process: due to the limitation of organization establishment, the more it reaches the grassroots level, the more it encounters the problem of "many things but less responsibility".
"Some local leaders do not pay enough attention, especially the lack of awareness of responsibility for natural disaster prevention, which makes it difficult to work together." Wang Hongwei believes that strict implementation of the responsibility system can further arouse the attention of local party and government leaders and stimulate initiative and creativity. .